Structural changeA change in the composition of either employment or output (value added) of an economy. This is usually measured as a change in the shares of the sectors in employment or value added.
provides indicators of the shifts in the sectoral composition of the economy, both output and employment, and of how these shifts affect labor productivity.
Product ComplexityA characteristic of exported (or imported) products that captures the sophistication of the production capabilities needed to produce and sell the product successfully in international markets. More complex products generally offer larger opportunities to capture value added. We calculate product complexity using the so-called ECI+ method.
provides indicators that relate the sophistication of internationally-traded products (also intermediate) to the productive capabilities required to produce them.
Innovation The introduction of new products, services or processes in the market. Although not all innovation is patented, we measure innovation by counting international patent families. A patent family is a series of related patents that provide international protection for a single innovative idea.
provides patent-based indicators of the global distribution of the effort in the development of new technologies, including those associated to the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
Global Value ChainsThe production of a single commodity or service can be split into many small parts (this is referred to as fragmentation). When these small parts are performed by separate production locations and/or firms, the production process takes the form of a value chain, with many parties contributing value. When this chain is dispersed over various geographical locations, we speak of a global value chain (GVCs).
(GVCs) provides indicators about the integration of economies into GVCs in terms of intensity, geographical distance, and diversity of their backward and forward linkages.